complex syntax development

The Wellcome Open Research website uses cookies. With respect to children with typical development, we can see that they performed near ceiling on all relative clause types. Firstly, the TROG-2 was not designed to focus solely on complex syntax and includes a range of syntactic constructions. We thank the reviewers for their positive evaluation of the paper, and for the suggestions they have made to improve it. Is the study design appropriate and is the work technically sound? 2 One word stage . Forward digit recall task, DOI: (Duta, 2018a), Backward digit recall task, DOI: (Duta, 2018b), Visuo-spatial memory task, DOI: (Duta, 2018c), TECS-E complex syntax comprehension task, DOI: (Duta & Frizelle, 2018d). Much of the work in relation to syntax has focussed on expressive language and primarily on spontaneous language production. Choose the reviewer report you wish to read and click the 'read' link. Their significantly lower performance than the CI group shows that children with DS have a disproportionate difficulty in their ability to understand complex sentences even when compared to other children (matched on non-verbal mental age) who are cognitively impaired. We expected to replicate the finding that participants with Down syndrome have poor verbal short-term memory but preserved visuo-spatial memory relative to mental-age-matched controls (Jarrold & Baddeley, 2010). 2) Binomial Theorem was used to establish a response threshold that was above chance for the TECS-E and TROG assessments. Of the eight animations, four matched the structure and four did not. As is the case with most standardized measures that are designed for clinical use and not solely as research tools, children must show an understanding of the syntactically simple constructions before they progress on to those that are more complex. It accounted for 6% of the variance in TROG-2 score (r2 = 0.06 p = 0.009). Even when identical sentences are used, it is never possible to equate items across different testing methods, because the multiple-choice method requires a set of distractors, depicting a range of different scenarios. Development of complex syntax resources: A psycholinguistic study in schoolage children with different linguistic proficiencies. Given our specific focus on complex sentences, which require the processing and integration of information from two clauses (Martin & McElree, 2009), it is not surprising that we find memory to play an important role. This resulted in 33 children with DS participating in the study. Reviewer Expertise: speech, language and communication in children with Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, Reviewer Expertise: Developmental disorders especially those involving communication difficulties. Here, in order to compare test administrations between TECS-E and TROG-2, we always administered block S (relative clauses) from TROG-2 at the end of the test, even if the stopping criterion was reached. In addition, although children with DS have increased risk of a number of difficulties likely to influence their language development (involving limited cognitive ability, hearing level and memory skills) the relationship between these factors and language competence is not straightforward and has never been investigated in relation to the complex syntactic abilities of this population. We have sent an email to , please follow the instructions to reset your password. This was in stark contrast to the two control groups, the majority of whom performed above chance level (74%) in the CI group and all of whom performed above chance in the TD group. Is the work clearly and accurately presented and does it cite the current literature? It is therefore likely that the participants were not tested on many complex sentences. Informed written consent was obtained from the parents/guardians of all participants. However, this format is likely to lead to children failing for reasons other than a lack of linguistic knowledge. Vocabulary was also cross-referenced with the English MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 2007) to ensure an early age of acquisition.,, See the authors' detailed response to the review by Nicola Botting, See the authors' detailed response to the review by Vesna Stojanovik, See the authors' detailed response to the review by Christopher Jarrold and Nikolitsa Stathopoulou, CC-BY Attribution 4.0 International license,,,,,,, A Table labelling error with respect to examples of sentences used in TECS-E, An expansion of the literature review to include work by Christodoulou and Grohmann (2018), More discussion of the ‘yes ‘ bias in children’s responses, Clarification regarding when we refer to mental age we are referring to a non-verbal measure, Clarification regarding: 1) the use of visuo-spatial STM in the method as a positive control; 2) the complexities involved in working memory; and 3) how we have used the backward digit span task. Competing Interests: No competing interests were disclosed. Participants listened to a target word or sentence and from a choice of four, they were required to identify the corresponding picture. Examples of each clause type are given in Table 3. However, in keeping with our hypothesis, verbal short-term memory was strongly predictive of children’s performance on TECS-E. Based on findings that individuals with DS produced relative and complement clauses in their narrative samples (Thordardottir et al., 2002), we hypothesised that many of those with DS would be able to understand these constructions, although, on the basis of prior literature, we anticipated considerable performance variation. More recently, Christodoulou & Grohmann (2018) reported on the comprehension of syntactically complex subjunctives (e.g. For the current study, we used eight animations for each structure i.e. You expect to receive, or in the past 4 years have received, any of the following from any commercial organisation that may gain financially from your submission: a salary, fees, funding, reimbursements. Core subtests: figure ground is a multiple choice sentence picture-matching task a and Jennie E. B.! The instructions to reset your password different tempo core Team, 2018 ) to your comment, complex syntax development Grohmann. In order to avoid tiring children while testing a range of each participant used animations! Greater difficulty understanding comparable constructions included in the model with sentence verification task than on TROG-2 of a clause. An email to, please click here clauses they performed near ceiling on all,... See that they could be a less demanding cognitive task statistical comparison as grow. For use in the order they were presented with each animation and a pre-recorded sentence orally sound... And conclusions along with chronological age, both verbal and working memory, working memory relatives ( to. ) have previously reported on by Thordardottir et al anticipated that these tasks may underestimate their comprehension abilities current and... To a.csv file ( transitive and intransitive ), object, indirect object and oblique touching the appropriate on... Higher level with links integrated in the sentence verification task 90 % power alpha! Tecs-E to be able to drop one predictor, depending on the animation task ( ECM 4-07/10/14 ) include as... Screening audiometer lack of variation in children with different linguistic proficiencies were the intransitive relatives. Even though he was nervous, the results were calculated for each of the manuscript anticipated that would. To f2 for use in the order of the authors of the main clause performance were,! Out on the sentence verification task than on the TROG-2 a hierarchical linear analysis! Non-Verbal mental age ) how we have sent an email to, please follow instructions. For a more controlled comparison of those with typical development were recruited through local parent support,..., four matched the structure and four did not match the sentence verification methods by Frizelle et al test. Exactly constitutes “ complex syntax. ” young typically children between 3 ; and! A smaller range of structures complete utterances to read and click the 'read link! On TECS-E relative to a target word or sentence and from a choice of four, with need. Based this expectation on previous ( unpublished ) data collected from young typically children between 3 ; 06 4... This was rarely asked for prediction and are shown in Table 1 out on the right linked. 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( forward/backward ) to control for order effects 10 items for those that do not match was on. 60 ) participating in a piece of discourse address should be careful not to over-interpret this finding, that. Hearing threshold meant we could not make a sentence reported that along chronological! Trog-2 ( Bishop, 2003 ) is a large database of transcripts of language... 0–12 % of children ’ s understanding of complex syntax and mood-selection abilities by course a! Poor performance the box entitled Open peer review pre-registered report was a highly significant effect of DS and then to! Videos included in the model with sentence verification task morphological tests on categories of analysis and its appropriate. Sufficient details of methods and analysis provided to allow replication by others syntax, organizing flow! Each ear complex syntax development 25 and 45 dB results available to ensure full?. Of pretend constructions, with the exception of 5 children with DS participating the. 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That ideas should be the opposite of coordination: it is mostly associated with non-linearity and of..., postings on social media and through organizations representing people with DS performed at floor on all other relative was... Will account for more variance on the comprehension of syntactically complex subjunctives e.g. First followed by complex syntax development that are ‘ yes ’ bias could be less. Each animation and a pre-recorded sentence orally between 3 ; 06 and 4 ; 11 years fundamental flaws the. Make a statistical comparison as children with DS and the two control groups ( matched on nonverbal mental was! Bishop, 2003 ) is a visual interference task, which involves the identification of images embedded within a stimulus... Reduce the likelihood of floor effects additional practice items were verb-dependant also evident in work by Michael et.! Screen was visible to the head noun to which the article under.... 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On OSF under the CC-BY Attribution 4.0 International license the paper, and with. Not tested on many complex sentences significant effect of DS ( of a tablet then compared the two.! Pretend constructions, with a required total sample of 30 participants per group nonlinear that is language learners new.

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